(work against the mainstream)

Author : Luis Biarge Baldellou – Email: lbiar@mail.com

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Abstracts: Astronomers say that the universe expands, I’m according to visual expansion, but I understand that real expansion is impossible (would need to create space from nothing), here I compare the solution by real expansion (actual theory) and visual expansion (proposed by me). I’m according to facts: the light is curved by gravity, time delay, redshift, Hubble’s law, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe, the universe is flat visually. Real expansion is impossible: really would to be creation of space and there are not any geometrical figure that permits expansion equal in all points and directions in 3d.

Astronomers say that universe expand, but this is impossible, I put here quickly 3 arguments:

A – Universe expansion is really creation (expansion is from compressed, but the space is not compressed and expansion is normally in points without gravity and empty). Creation is against physic laws and science, this is not transformation from nothing.

B – Expansion is equal in all points and directions: there is not any geometrical figure that admits this in 3d, we see in 3d and by that the expansion would need to be in 3d. Only a figure admit this, but only from 1 point: the sphere, but expansion would not be flat, against expansion (not all points, not homogeneous), not flat, …

C – The universe is flat (at least in visible universe), cannot expand in not flat form and give a flat universe, in 3d flat expansion only would be cubic, cubic is not equal in all directions (not equidistant and against the theory) and with distance lose angle (form of V inverted).


How is the universe: according to the facts, the universe is infinite in time and space (nothing is created), not expand, but has visual expansion (according to Hubble’s law, time delay, redshift). The visual expansion is by light curved (proved and according to physic laws), in many big distances a few increment in gravity seem equal to an expansion (a visual expansion near light speed in CMBR is near 1/13.2 billion light years or 1/13,200,000,000) and all time is homogeneous because all distances are adjusted (also in perpendicular by adjust with distance and same angle). The universe grow gravity (in first time gravity was 0).

There are many optic effects: perspective, mirror that invert image, mirage, rainbow, the perspective (the more near) relation distance with visible size, a curvature by light relation distance with visual speed (visual expansion). Only an optic effect is equal in all direction and places and flat (like perspective)


Begin with comparisons (X: info by expansion theory – Y: my hypothesis):

1 – Expansion:

X: creation of space in all place and direction (not expansion from compressed). If it’s so evident for you make an experiment that creates space.

Y: visual expansion. Only visual expansion is according to physic laws and not magic.

2 – Expansion equal in all points and directions:

X: there are not geometrical figure in 3d (against geometry and mathematics) or if so evident for you draw the geometrical figure that use the universe to expand.

Y: visual expansion like perspective is in all places and directions and relations distance with anything (distance with visual speed here). Optic effect is flat, expansion real in all directions like sphere is not flat.

3 – Flat, homogeneous, isotropy:

X: difficult: expansion equal in all directions is not flat, flat lose angle with distance (cubic) and against physic laws –

Y: visual expansion is flat, homogeneous and isotropy (any optic effect is flat and equal in all directions, homogeneous, ..) and according to physic laws

4 – Dark energy:

X: need dark matter, but this is indifferent because in a bigger universe they would be less power, cannot create nothing (can expand, but expansion is really creation) and with more or less quantity, cumulus, … the universe expand equal according to Hubble’s, so all this is against physic laws.

“As the Universe expands, the density of dark matter declines more quickly than the density of dark energy (see equation of state) and, eventually, the dark energy dominates. Specifically, when the volume of the universe doubles, the density of dark matter is halved, but the density of dark energy is nearly unchanged (it is exactly constant for a cosmological constant)”. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accelerating_universe – this is magic and against physic laws.

Y: It’s not necessary: remember none has seen dark energy.

5 – Blackbody of the CMBR:

X: “A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation.” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_body . Need a body not known.

Y: A universe in a moment with first radiation is a blackbody perfect (no need a body) that emit radiation, but not reflect other emissions because there are not in past, the emission in present are in distance and by that don’t arrive and cannot reflect emission from future.

X cannot give the same result because according to expansion and Big Bang theories “When the universe cooled enough, stable atoms could form. These atoms could no longer absorb the thermal radiation, and the universe became transparent instead of being an opaque fog” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation and by that cannot have black body characteristics like option Y.

6 – Accelerated expansion

X – “Models attempting to explain accelerating expansion include some form of dark energy: Cosmological Constant, Quintessence, Dark Fluid or Phantom energy” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accelerating_universe – not, this is strange and with new theories (Quintessence, …) and work over expansion, but universe expansion is creation and this models are useless. It’s not a gas in expansion. Is creation. Expansion from compressed also would have motion, creation is according to theory and not motion.

Y: probably in near distance the light is curved more (probably by milky way) this is visually like an accelerated expansion. For example: if in 1 million light years – there are an increment of 1 is 1,000,001, in 10 million also is 1, so 10,000,001, … because all light are expanded the same quantity near us. This visually is like an accelerated expansion (more quantity in near and decrease with distance).

7 – Cosmic noise: x and y equal, a visual expansion also stretch the wave.

Y: Really there is not stretch (not real expansion) but there is time delay and redshift like any body that move away and accelerating. Like in redshift there are stretch of the wave by move away.

8 – CMBR

X – “Cosmic background radiation is well explained as radiation left over from an early stage in the development of the universe” – “its discovery is considered a landmark test of the Big Bang model of the universe” – “The glow is highly uniform in all directions” – “The cosmic microwave background is isotropic to roughly one part in 100,000” – “The cosmic microwave background is perhaps the main prediction of the Big Bang model” – “This recombination event happened at around 3000 K or when the universe was approximately 379,000 years old” – “The color temperature of the photons has continued to diminish ever since; now down to 2.725 K, their temperature will continue to drop as the universe expands” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation and also few difference of temperature of only 1 K – but 3 k is 3000 k stretched and 1k is near 1000 k stretched. Photos of CMBR not seem very equal to this a plasma with holes, ..

Y: The first emissions (radiation) in the universe, the universe in first time only need hydrogen (can have more elements), in first time none gravity and none emissions, first gas clouds probably near formation of stars make the first emissions. By a calculus by distance and angles we can see that 1 degree is “sin 1º = x / 17.5 billion light years” that give 305 million light years represent 1 degre in each axis. The photo taken seem low resolution (a good resolution of all the sphere may take probably many yeas), so in 1 only degree can have 3050 milky way. (more in my webpage 121e – Bad information and calculus in the CMBR). Really in this time was many pre-stars without galaxies, think in the billion stars without create galaxies by all the universe, this is very homogeneous, and more near to the photos of CMBR where 1 degre are near 3050 milky ways

Do you believe a precision of 305 million light years (3050 milky ways) by degree is very precis in the CMBR for temperature, … in CMBR image?

Do you believe that the universe would create first atoms at 3000 k? Then the stars would to be plasma without atoms.

9 – The universe is flat (at least all visible universe).

X: An expansion not flat cannot give a flat universe. According to expansion theory cannot expand in flat mode (3d would to be cubic).

Y: A universe without real expansion is flat.

10 – Expansion only is in points without gravity

X: “gravitationally bound objects like the Milky Way do not expand.” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metric_expansion_of_space – this is impossible and would give an not homogeneous universe and not flat, would need to take in count space by galaxies, … for example a galaxy bigger that another more little would to rip and more in time (universe in any direction has many galaxies after another). Problems also with expansion perpendicular to galaxies. Also there is not expansion is creation.

Y: No problem, there are not real expansion.

11 – Expansion + stretch are not homogeneous

X : theory say that expansion + stretch is homogeneous but this is impossible: 50% less of 100 is 50 but 50% more of 50 is 75 not 100 (any mathematician and economist know this). In a bank interest the 1% of 100 is 1 but the 1% of 1 is not 100. So expansion + stretch is not homogeneous and lose angle visually – We don’t see the universe (in V inverted). This in not 100+0=75(expansion)+25(stretch)=50+50=25+75 =10+90, this is 100, 25% more of 75 = 93.75, 50% more of 50= 75, 75% more of 25 = 43.75, 90% more of 10 = 19. This lose angle and would give an universe visually in V inverted.

Y: No problem, there are not real expansion.

12 – Hubble’s law

X – Expansion according to distance, more distance is more speed, after comoving.

Y – Visual expansion according to distance after comoving. Without comoving is like objects in perspective with distance from us incorrect (example: take photo in perspective, but take bad the distance and all is incorrect, need adjust the distances). Need comoving to adjust in same form that real expansion.

13 – Perpendicular expansion

X – By time delay need comoving, by comoving and by same angle perpendicular distance grow.

Y – By time delay and error in distance (like perspective with distances incorrect) need comoving, by comoving and same angle seem that perpendicular distance grow. Really here the distance is less that visual, but can to take in count like X (all astronomers think today in X form: more real distance and not less real distance).

14 – Time delay

X – There is time delay by expansion (creation) and not motion.

Y – There is time delay by visual expansion (move away) or longer way that need the light in the travel. There is redshift by longer way continuous and by that also time delay.

15 – Comoving

“Comoving distance factors out the expansion of the universe, giving a distance that doesn’t change over time, though it is defined to be equal to the proper distance at the present time” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comoving_distance

X – By time delay need comoving to adjust. By comoving not obtain homogeneity and isotropy (point 11).

Y – Visual expansion need comoving also by time delay, in this without comoving is equal to a perspective with distances from us bad, need to arrange by comoving to put relation distance-speed and this is homogeneous (already is homogeneous a universe without expansion), isotropy, .. Really the distances real (comoving) is less to visual (Y) and not more (X) but we can think like in expansion. By comoving also seem that expand in all axis because the angle is the same (same angle and more distance x give more distance y and z). By comoving a not expanding universe seem expand homogeneous.

16 – From where expand

X – from nothing the space of the universe is created all time and in all points, not motion, this seems few physical and more near philosophy and magic.

Y – There are not creation, the universe is all in time and space.

17 – Big Bang

X – All expansion of the universe is creation (magic, creationism), Big Bang is more creation in 1 moment (time, space, matter), only 1 time happen, without proofs, not visible, … . Time initiate from not time, space from not space, matter from not matter. – Near gods, a priest says (in TV), good the universe is created in Big Bang, who make Big Bang: God. Religions are happy with Big Bang.

Y – Not exist, not creation, universe exist always (infinite).

18 – Matter of the universe

X – This is created in Big Bang.

Y – The universe only could to be empty or not empty, like we can see it’s not empty, always was not empty (infinite in time). Nothing is created, science not admit creation.

19 – Space of the universe

X – All time is created (it’s not expansion from compressed) in all point and in all directions according to Hubble’s law, by that is creation, creationism, magic, against physic laws and science.

Y – The space of the universe is infinite in time and space, never created, nor expansion (only visual expansion by light curved by gravity). According to physic laws, science and not magic, not creation.

20 – Galaxies before that stars

X – Galaxies are before that stars: “fluctuations gravitationally attracted gas and dark matter to the denser areas” in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_formation_and_evolution this need strange phenomenons without any proof, galaxies are formed by gravity of stars, but according to the theory a galaxy of gas (without gravity) is already a galaxy, in all forms the stars need to born from homogeneous gas, the galaxy can to expand or disappear, is strange that galaxies so formed give a homogeneous, isotropic and flat universe. Don’t solve the paradox that says that in a homogeneous gas cannot create stars.

Y – Stars are before galaxies (galaxies are formed by join gravity of stars). The paradox that says that in a homogeneous universe of gas not create stars is few real, the universe has infinite time to condense gas and create gravity. Example: plain an embankment and in few time rain will create tracks. If rain can make tracks quickly in a plain embankment: Why universe with infinite time cannot create gravity and stars?. The hydrogen in initial universe has not gravity, but is free and move in any directions creating points with more gravity. More: X solution (theory) also need to create stars in gas from galaxy (not solve the same problem), the new stars today also use this form to create: groups of new stars, … Galaxies are groups or stars that join the gravity and sweep the universe by motion.

“a team from California Institute of Technology found six star forming galaxies about 13.2 billion light years (light travel distance) away and therefore created when the universe was only 500 million years old” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_formation_and_evolution – this show that really the stars create galaxies, this information not show, but 6 stars in a space near milky way is not a galaxy and has not gravity by that this information need to speak over 6 near stars that create a young galaxy.

21 – Space creation

X – The space is always created from nothing in all points and directions, from at least 13.2 billion years. Not expand (false description) from nothing, create in points empties and without gravity (by that cannot be a transformation). Creationism, magic, impossible, belief.

Y – There are not space creation, the space cannot be created: hypothesis 1h.

22 – flat universe

X – A universe in expansion (creation) in a form not know by geometry, but not flat give a flat universe. – The universe is flat visually until CMBR (maximum visible). This is incompatible, an expansion not flat cannot give a flat universe. Flat is a fact. A curved universe is not flat.

Y – The universe is not expanded, not created by that is flat.

23 – The darkness of the night sky – Olbers’ paradox.

With this I begin to examine the evidence for the Big Bang in http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmology_faq.html#BBevidence

X – By expansion and stretch that expand the wave low the infrared.

Y – By visual expansion: redshift and time delay that make the same effect (see 7 – Cosmic noise)

24 – The Hubble Law – the linear distance vs redshift law. The data are now very good.

X – By universe expansion. (space creation)

Y – By visual universe expansion (visual space expansion). All my hypothesis is according to Hubble law, redshift, time delay.

25 – Homogeneity – fair data showing that our location in the Universe is not special.

X – Bad, a universe with real expansion would not be Homogeneous and also not flat. Only a flat expansion would to be so, but a flat expansion in visual 3d only could to be cubic and this is against the theories. Really Homogeneity, isotropy, flat are evidences anti expansion and Big Bang.

Y – Visual expansion is flat, homogeneous, … : Ok.

26 – Isotropy – very strong data showing that the sky looks the same in all directions to 1 part in 100,000.

X and Y – same that point 25: homogeneity.

27 – Time dilation in supernova light curves.

X – By expansion of the universe (creation really).

Y – By visual expansion. Remember that my hypothesis is according to Hubble law, redshift, time delay.

28 – Radio source and quasar counts vs. flux. These show that the Universe has evolved.

X and Y: already say in: 7 – Cosmic noise . Both are according to this.

29 – Existence of the blackbody CMB. This shows that the Universe has evolved from a dense, isothermal state

See: 5 – Blackbody of the CMBR

30 – Variation of TCMB with redshift. This is a direct observation of the evolution of the Universe

See: 8 – CMBR

31 – Deuterium, 3He, 4He, and 7Li abundances. These light isotopes are all well fit by predicted reactions occurring in the First Three Minutes.

See: 33 – Deuterium from First Three Minutes is incompatible with first atoms in CMBR

32 – the angular power spectrum of the CMB anisotropy

This is: “The anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) consists of the small temperature fluctuations in the blackbody radiation” – http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/CMB-DT.html

See: 8 – CMBR

Until here the Big Bang evidences. All believer thing that has proofs and evidences.

33 – Deuterium from First Three Minutes is incompatible with first atoms in CMBR

X – According to the theory the deuterium (atoms) are from first 3 minutes, but also according to CMBR theory the first atoms are created in CMBR (many years later). This 2 theories are incompatibles (also particle inflaton if we give true to first atoms in CMBR – CMBR is visible, first 3 minutes is not visible and without proofs). This show the low consistency of many of the Big Bang theories and many of their also against physic laws, … At least 1 of the 2 theories is not true. Is easy to make a theory and join to another thing to obtain approval. (in other form car need wheels, but wheels are not evidence for cars).

There are not atoms before CMBR: “After 10−6 seconds, the early universe was made up of a hot plasma of photons, electrons, and baryons. The photons were constantly interacting with the plasma through Thomson scattering. As the universe expanded, adiabatic cooling caused the plasma to cool until it became favorable for electrons to combine with protons and form hydrogen atoms” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation

Y – Without relation. Bod theories are bad.

34 – Inflation

X – Needed to understand like is possible that expansion in relation distance speed can make a so big universe. In other words we see at 13.7 billion lightyears from 13.7 billion years, to expand to that size would need to expand at light speed and it’s impossible that max speed would be average speed in anything that accelerate (distance – speed). By all sides inflation has errors, is against physic laws, not solve nothing and create many problems. I say: 137e – Inflation is crazy into the crazy. Inflaton have also problems: see 33.

Y – Don’t need it.

35 – Brake of inflation

X – Nobody speaks over inflation, but according to the theory inflation is an infinite acceleration of the expansion and later need brake: “In addition, Inflationary Cosmology predicts that after about 10−37 seconds[6] the nascent universe underwent exponential growth that smoothed out nearly all inhomogeneities.” – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation – is clear all without any proof, but needed for so big size (see 34 – Inflation). According to Hubble’s law a universe with size 0 expand infinite low so need that in inflation the expansion would be infinite in relation to actual (more that light speed probably) – expansion today is near 70.6 ± 3.1 (km/sec)/Mpc . Also so big expansion need brake. Acceleration and brake is not according to physic laws knows, not proof, not register, … : Do you understand how brake all near the same time in a so big universe without instantaneous and today all fossil visual according to Hubble’s law?

Y – Not needed.

36 – Proofs over Big Bang.

An impossible cannot have proof and evidences, but all believer think that have proofs and evidences. Expansion of the universe is impossible and by that only a belief.

X – All I read are over particles: What is it the relation between particles and Big Bang? What proof over Big Bang can give the CERN? A theory over Big Bang can include particles, but particles are not evidence for Big Bang. (a car has wheels, but a wheel is not evidence for cars).

Y – Not need.

37 – Incorrect theories.

X – Big Bang need many theories, but all without proofs, normally against physic laws or changeable, incompatibles (see 38), …

Y – Like you can see a theory over an impossible is false

37.2 – Incompatibilities (only in option X)

– deuterium, inflaton, first atoms in cmbr (see 33)

– Equidistant and flat expansion (equidistant is spherical and by arcs).

– Not expand in points with gravity and Hubble’s law (see 10)

– Expansion (motion and from compressed) and creation (not motion and from nothing): sometimes theories use 1 or the other thing.

– Expansion and not motion: only creation can to be not motion, but need to adjust in all the universe in the other 2 axis.

– Brake from inflation and actual speed.

– Acceleration of the creation (is not expansion) and not motion, not inertia.

– Homogeneous and “fluctuations gravitationally” to create galaxies that also need homogeneity to create stars in a homogeneous universe.

– Physical body Black body, not show never, and it’s only a quality (see 5)

– Homogeneity CMBR and 1 degree is 3050 milky way: so all is homogeneous (see 8 )

– Dark energy: the energy cannot create space, in dark energy is indifferent the quantity, the power not decrease with size of the universe, and accelerate.

– Galaxies are concentration of stars by gravity, but according to theories galaxies of gas are before stars and without gravity.

– Big Rip and Big Crunch are options inverses and both impossible (see 38)

– Flat universe, but not lose angle: an cubic is flat, but lose angle.

– Create space and Big Bang and science, science not admit creation of nothing.

– Expand (creation) equal in all directions and homogeneous.

– Expand (creation) equal in all directions and points and geometry.

– Expansion + stretch give a universe not flat and against visual expansion.

– The plasma of CMBR form hydrogen atoms at around 3000 K and temperatures bigger in stars don’t convert hydrogen in plasma.

– Expansion (unknown force, without attenuation) has more power that gravity.

– ….

38 – Big Rip and Big Crunch

X – Big Rip would need a bigger expansion, the expansion is equal in all points and infinitely minor that in inflation time, also there are not motion (for rip would need motion, but so not expand the universe) by that is near impossible. Big crunch need to destroy space and the probability is also near impossible (the universe not expand from compressed).

Y – Not need.

39 – Big Black holes (both options X and Y).

Like Big Rip and Big Crunch are impossible (but admitted by astronomers) like a joke I say that the universe probably end in Big Black holes= each galaxy make at least a black hole in the center this would expand absorbing all the galaxy or near all of their (maybe far stars not attracted) and any black holes absorb others in free movement by the universe.

There is a few probability that the black holes dissolve, but the mass of black holes that we know today are fewer for the big black holes in future, also is probably that the particles that eject with more gravity cannot escape, …

40 – Hubble’s law is very exact to be physic expansion

X – The expansion (creation) need to be equal in all points and directions, without relation to dark energy, … so very much mathematical in time and fossil register, is like all stones are equal. So very much mathematical to be true. According to the theory all time before CMBR and fossil register is different.

Y – In visual is correct.

41 – Why need comoving?

X – By time delay the stars are visible near us.

Y – “ , but also because the gravity grow and by that seem time delay, farther star in first time is less curved the light and more near us. By this need also comoving and seem equal to a real expansion but this is according to physic laws.

42 – Why CMBR is visible?

X – The universe accelerate (inflation), brake and now expand in a form that permits show just all the visual universe. CMBR expand visually near C (light speed) but not more or less. To much casual. The expansion (creation) need to adjust just for today visual all. A few more quickly and CMBR would not be visible, more slowly and we see a CMBR at same distance, but with lower speed. In fact, in the future would not be visible by Hubble’s law (distance-speed)

Y – We see the visual light years from first stars. We cannot see more because there are not emissions farther. Maybe in the future not be visible or variation in curvature of light with time (without answer here)


Final resume:

– An impossible only is impossible and cannot have proofs and evidences: creation of space, in all direction and points, universe flat with expansion (creation) not flat are impossibles.

– Any person that believes in an impossible is a believer, make sects, … like universe expansion is impossible all that say is true is only a believer.

– All believer believe that has proofs and evidences: UFO, martians, astrology, …

– Is very difficult to make understand a believer that their belief is false: I’m treating this 2 years, all astronomers professional and amateur don’t read and say expansion is evident, in forums, newspaper, … any are more fanatics and many of theirs arrive to insult (and normally say that it’s not personal). In religious, .. there are sceptics, but here in astronomy I have only found believers.

– My only hypothesis here is that universe cannot expand, the hypothesis that I give over light curvature may have errors, but really the universe cannot expand.

– Science is dictatorship, same the false.

– Take an error like true (like universe expansion) give 3 errors: the same error of think that is true, not search the true and not admit the true (in near 2 years all remain believers in this impossible).

– An optical effect is the only solution that can solve according to physic laws and science the visual expansion of the universe: homogeneous, flat and equal in all directions.

– A universe in expansion (creation) would need to obey many theories (inflation, first minutes, galaxies before, …) and new physic laws (acceleration and brake of inflation, Big Bang, …) unknowns, new elements (black body, dark energy, inflaton, …), …

– Consider universe expansion is against physic and science and according to religions and creationism. Against also to evolution of Darwin and put the enemy into the house (the religious come into the science).

– The real size of the visible universe is less of visual (light is curved and distance seem to expand), 2 objects visually at same distance can be really at different distances (the ways have different curvature), also to be really in different direction to visual. This is not very different to other optic effects: gravitational lens, the Large Magellanic Cloud, … that also are by light curved by gravity.


In my Hypotheses I have hypotheses for a new cosmology with a universe with visual expansion, but not real expansion.

Tags: accelerated expansion of the universe, Big bang, Big rip, Big Crunch, galaxies, universe, universe expansion, mathematics, physics, astronomy, astrophysics, expansion, infinite, hypothesis, hypotheses, ,magic, creation, creationism, belief, believer, sect, gods

Author:Luis Biarge Baldellou

Email: lbiar@mail.com

Copyright ©2010 Luis Biarge Baldellou – You can copy all or part of this work giving this web page direction.